Jenny's Jam Jar

2020 - Multiple Choice Questions

2020

1.
ADH increases the activity of
  1. Baroreceptor firing
  2. Na/K/2Cl on Thick Ascending Loop
  3. Aquaporin-2 channels on basolateral membrane
  4. V4 receptors in the pituitary
2.
What is TRUE about acid-base physiology
  1. Weak base readily accepts H+
  2. pH 7.4 = [H+] 60mmol/L
  3. OH is an independent variable
  4. A decrease in pH from 7.4 to 7.1 doubles the hydrogen ion concentration
3.
Which nerve fibre has the fastest speed of conduction
  1. Aa
  2. Ab
  3. Ad
  4. C
4.
Which lung volume/capacity increases in pregnancy
  1. ERV
  2. RV
  3. Expiratory Capacity
  4. Inspiratory Capacity
5.
What is most true about lymph
  1. High protein content
  2. Low in platelets
  3. Contains all clotting factors
  4. Daily flow 4ml/min
There were 2 qns ‘most true about lymphatics’ recalled to contain
  • daily lymph flow
  • the protein concentration in the ISF/liver
 Note: the protein content of lymph is low and mimics ISF [protein] everywhere except the liver
6.
The EDPVR relationship of the cardiac pressure-volume diagram is a measure of:
  1. Inotropy
  2. Chronotropy
  3. Dromotropy
  4. Lusitropy
7.
The myotome for the knee reflex
  1. L4
  2. S1
  3. L5
  4. S2
8.
Daily volume of saliva secretions
  1. 1-2L
  2. 0.5-1L
  3. 0.6ml/min
  4. 0.3ml/min
9.
The central venous pressure ‘c wave’ corresponds to which ECG event
  1. QRS
  2. P wave
  3. end of QRS
  4. begining of T wave
Due to RV valve bulging backwards into RA as RV contracts
10.
The action of Levosimendan on KATP channels
  1. closes
  2. opens
  3. stabilises
  4. removes Ca2+ plug
The action of Levosimendan on KATP channels
11.
The myotome for the ankle reflex
  1. L4
  2. S1
  3. L5
  4. S2
12.
An example of a 3rd generation cephalosporin
  1. Cefepime
  2. Cefuroxime
  3. Ceftazidime
  4. Cefazolin
13.
The Respiratory Quotient for a protein diet
  1. 0.5
  2. 0.7
  3. 0.8
  4. 1.0
Proteins: The respiratory quotient for protein metabolism can be demonstrated by the chemical equation for oxidation of albumin:C72H112N18O22S + 77 O2 → 63 CO2 + 38 H2O + SO3 + 9 CO(NH2)2The RQ for protein is approximately 0.8. RQ = 63 CO2/ 77O2 = 0.8Due to the complexity of the various ways in which different amino acids can be metabolized, no single RQ can be assigned to the oxidation of protein in the diet; however, 0.8 is a frequently utilized estimateOpenanaesthesia.org
14.
Normal thermal neutral zone in awake adult
  1. 0.2-0.5 °C
  2. 36.5-37.3 °C
  3. 25-30 °C
  4. 32-34 °C
Thermoneutral Zone = ambient temp where we do not have to actively regulate our body temp
15.
Evaporation
  1. Accounts of 50% heat loss at ambient temperature
  2. Body temperature does not have to exceed ambient temperature
  3. Increases in high humidity environments
  4. Accounts for 500ml of water loss per day
Evaporation = transfer of heat by evaporation of water 600-700ml of water evaporates / day 20% heat loss The only way to lose heat when ambient temp > Body temp Evaporative heat loss depends on the vapour pressure of water in air so at higher humidities the rate of evaporation decreases
16.
Measurement of blood volume is Plasma Volume divided by
  1. 1- Hematocrit
  2. 1 – ECF
  3. 1 – Interstitial water
  4. 1- Packed Cell Volume
17.
Which is true of hepatic extraction ratio
  1. Diazepam has high HER
  2. GTN has low HER
  3. HER is high for capacity dependent drugs
  4. HER is high for flow dependent drugs
  • Intrinsic clearance = hepatic metabolism of drugs if unlimited & all drug was unbound
  • High intrinsic clearance (lignocaine, M, propranolol)
    • Almost all drug presented to liver removed
    • ∴limited by HBF
  • Low intrinsic clearance (warfarin, diazepam)
    • Liver already maximally metabolising
    • ∴limited by enzyme activity
  • PPB → only unbound drug can be metabolised
    • High IC → ∆ PPB has maximal effect on clearance
    • Low IC → ∆ PPB has significant effect on clearance
  • Hepatic BF →↑BF = ↑drug presented for metabolism per unit time
    • High IC = ↑BF = ↑Clearance
    • Low IC = ↑BF = not much ∆ clearance
18.
What is the intracellular concentration of Cl- (mmol/L)
  1. 26
  2. 65
  3. 110
19.
Mixed venous O2 will decrease with:
  1. Hyperbaric oxygen treatment
  2. Decreased tissue oxygen consumption
  3. Severe anaemia
  4. Muscle relaxation
20.
Which of the following attenuate hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction
  1. Acidaemia
  2. Hypercapnia
  3. Iron deficiency
  4. Alveolar hypoxia
MCQ was recalled as shown, however… All enhance HPVC Attenuation via alkalosis and volatiles